Let’s allow the natural Love for ourselves to be expressed, it is important to have genuine connections with others so that we can get the things we need and help others, but it is equally important to connect with yourself.
Then, Love can reveal its beauty in all ways throughout each day.
Let’s take the very first action in self-love RIGHT NOW.
We are utilizing our ability to breathe at will in all different ways.
Our breath has been there literally our entire lives, changing as needed to the demand of compelling circumstances and flowing effortlessly when we are resting.
Taking multiple full and deep breaths every day is proven to change our bodies and minds for the better.
Great, so take in 5 full and deep breaths with me, holding it for a moment at the top and naturally exhaling, never pushing out your breath.
One inhale nice a big breath, expanding your belly and lungs as much as you can…. Hold it….and exhale gently with relief.
Two inhaling fresh oxygen that will be supplied to your bloodstream…. holding it to soak it in….and exhaling without any effort.
Three inhale, feeling rejuvenated and invigorated by this breathing…. hold it….and exhale quickly.
Four inhale, noticing how breathing comes naturally to you…. pausing to soak it in….and exhale any tension or worry.
And Five inhaling fully is an act of self-love…. pausing to feel this Love….and exhaling into complete relaxation. And allow your breath to flow at a pace without any effort from you now…
Good, by doing this, you prove you are capable of self-love.
Deep breathing increases the oxygen supply to your brain and stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, sometimes referred to as the ‘rest and digest system. By breathing deeply and often, you command your body to rest, relaxing and rejuvenating you.
This is self-love in its simplest form that anyone can do at any time of the day.
Now let’s honor ourselves by relaxing the mind even further. Notice now how your thoughts are rising in your mind, one after the other. See them come and see them go. Some thoughts linger for some time, and some only come for a split second. If you can focus, you will notice even smaller thoughts, such as describing the world around you or labeling the things in your surroundings.
Let your hearing become super alert now, and try to focus on some sounds around you. Maybe you can hear the sound of your breath……
Can you hear nature nearby?…… Or perhaps cars passing by…. or people talking with each other…. go from sound to sound, focusing on only one at a time….
Now stop focusing on any sound in particular and allow all of the noises around you to come in equally, and when you hear them, they almost act as tiny waves of relaxation, calming your mind…..
now, if you could stretch your senses even further, perhaps you can become aware of the silence between the sounds, or as I like to call it, “the canvas of the sounds.”
This is the invisible fabric that sound lays upon and travels along. Just become aware of the silence in between the sounds now.
Good…Your mind relaxes when you activate your senses on command.
Humans have the unique ability to visualize, which allows for creating all kinds. So, let’s use the power of your excellent visualization abilities to induce self-love.
Make sure your eyes are closed and begin to imagine yourself full of an abundance of self-love.
See yourself now, choosing healthy foods and cooking at home, so you know all of the ingredients you are putting into your body.
Vividly see yourself eating well. When you eat well, see yourself enjoy these moments, and you feel the nutrition these choices bring you…
Imagine now you have a strong will to avoid junk foods and unhealthy drinks. See yourself confidently saying no to all these things; you feel very proud now when you avoid eating something harmful…… perfect.
Eating healthy is an essential component of self-love. Visualize yourself now, entirely at peace.
You can imagine yourself in a place you love, making you feel peaceful. Perhaps on the beach, in a forest, or snuggled up in your room.
Whatever brings you comfort, vividly see yourself in this place right now, and allow these feelings of peace and tranquility to arise in your body. The more details you can add to this image, the better.
See the colors brightly…. feel the sensations of your surroundings…. notice how you look here, what kind of expressions are on your face….
Be here in this place of complete peace for a few moments longer.
Good. Another form of self-love is observing your mental chatter.
To have great self-love, you must expand the good things you feel about yourself and challenge any negative thoughts as soon as they arise.
So, hear yourself saying, “When I fully love myself, I can fully love others.
There is a great stillness that comes when I meditate. Each day, I allow my Love for myself to grow more and more.
I honor myself by allowing peace to rise in me. Deciding to love me unconditionally, no matter what happens, feels lovely.
I get to know myself fully when I use mindfulness techniques. My self-esteem grows along with my self-love. I love and accept everything about myself; I find peace by using my imagination. Today, I love myself even more than yesterday.
Genuinely loving myself brings me peace. The more I love myself, the better my entire health. I love every moment of my existence. Every part of me that makes me who I am is encompassed with Love.
I have unconditional Love within me that overflows in abundance to those around me.”
Great! Now gently open your eyes, take a fresh breath, and know that whenever you Love yourself, you will find Love.
Straightforward white bread recipe for Breadmaker (if you’re clever, you can adapt it for the oven!) Whole wheat flour could be substituted. Initially, this was a medieval Tuscan recipe created by peasants who couldn’t afford the high taxes on salt. Perfect for those of us on low-sodium diets!
1 cup warm water One tablespoon olive oil 1 teaspoons sugar 1 teaspoons yeast 3 cups flour
Mix water and sugar, and dissolve sugar. Add yeast to sugar water. Put flour, yeast mixture, and olive oil into Breadmaker. Start the Breadmaker with a plain or French loaf setting on your machine. Add egg white when ingredients are almost completely combined (about 5 minutes in). Allow Breadmaker to complete baking.
Hello and welcome to this guided meditation to take you on a cosmic projection experience.
Are you ready to go on a journey that will open your perspective and change your life forever?
Make sure you will not be disturbed to be fully immersed in this adventure.
Lucid dreaming seems very real, and at times, you may feel like things are happening out of your control, but remember, you can always open your eyes if you need to.
Like any other form of art, this takes patience and practice to become fully adapted to the techniques, so don’t be too hard on yourself initially.
Allow your eyes to gently close, and when you do this, you feel a wave of relaxation sweep over you.
Close your eyes, staying as still as possible. If you feel like you need to move or even have an itch, resist the temptation to move at all.
This is how you access a deep state of lucid dreaming. As you relax, I would like you to visualize every word I say and immerse yourself entirely in this experience. Begin to imagine your room around you in as much detail as possible.
See the bed, the furniture, the ground, the ceiling. See how the lines of your room are in your mind, like how the walls come together or the straight edges of tables and furniture.
Now see the patterns in your room, any textures of pillows or fabrics.
Now imagine that your window is open, and you hear the wind blowing gently outside. It is a lovely day with white clouds passing by.
Begin to breathe in and out…each breath you take makes you more relaxed. In and out… feeling relaxation coming over you… the wind outside your window is blowing harder; the clouds are turning gray…
You are noticing how your breath naturally slows. As you concentrate on your breathing, you may feel some tingling sensations in your fingers, arms, and feet.
Notice how this tingle grows as you begin to focus on it.
The wind outside your window is bringing a rainstorm. You hear the pitter-patter of the raindrops starting to hit your window.
The rain becomes heavier as the storm draws closer, and the clouds become darker. Feel relaxation sweep over your entire body.
Breathing deeper, only your chest and belly is moving; everything else remains completely still.
Resist any desire to move any part of your body, no matter how much you want to.
This takes you deeper into the astral plane. Notice those tingling sensations again… feel the energy of these sensations….
Allow that energy to amplify…
You are breathing, hearing the rain falling outside. Relaxing. Bring all of the tinglings into your hands and fingers.
This is a comforting feeling and also brings you excitement.
The rain outside the window is letting up to a drizzle and continues tapping ever so slightly on the glass.
Breathing, noticing how your awareness does not reside within your body, but rather anywhere you’d like it to…
So with the power of your imagination, picture yourself in your room again… start to imagine that your eyes are open and you can see everything around you, exactly as if your eyes were open… look around the room seeing the furniture…the patterns…the lines and the curves.
You can feel your heart beating, and you can hear your breath.
Just the way you can listen to the rain outside your astral window.
The more you can tune in to your own body and different sensations, the stronger your hands begin to tingle.
And you relax further and more profound; time seems to slow down even more…. slowing down until reality seems to come to a stand-still…
As If time is frozen, bring your hands up into the air, looking at your arms extending in front of you with your imagination.
You can see that tingling sensation in your astral hands as energy vibrates brightly.
Taking it slowly, begin moving your astral hands around, and the more you do, the lighter you feel.
Moving your hands around makes you feel playful and happy…
Allow the feeling of playfulness to grow, as if you were a kid running around on the playground…or playing make-believe with your friends…
Now, in your lucid dream, lift your head off of the bed, and sit up… feeling giddy and silly… allowing a big smile to come across your face.
This may seem odd, but I assure you it is entirely safe and ok. Turn around and look at yourself lying so relaxed on your bed… your body is thoroughly enjoying this rest.
It is time to roll your astral body away from your imagination, so slowly and gently, holding a sense of happiness and play, moving 180 degrees away from your body and standing up.
You are now ready for your heavenly experience. Begin creating whatever you like and doing whatever you want. This is the ultimate space for learning.
And remember, anytime you can open your eyes and return to the physical realm.
Welcome to this Guided Meditation practice for the best moment in life …
Gently place your hands on your lap …
Your back, neck, and head are extended but not too tight … Whatever feels most comfortable for you …
Softly close your eyes …
As you settle yourself in, pay attention to the movements in your body …
Notice whether you can invite more stillness and peace into these movements …
Welcoming the breath …
Welcoming more space with every in-breath and letting go of any tension or worry that your body and your mind may be holding onto for the day ahead …
Acknowledge that you are right where you need to be in this moment …
Becoming in tune with your body and mind … Take a moment to realize that you are present in this moment …
Taking in the things around you …
Just a simple awareness of where you are …
As you maintain this soft awareness, begin to deepen your breath …
Breathe in, noticing the air flowing through your nose …
Observing its touchpoint inside your nose …
Observing the pause …
Its length …
And as you breathe out, observing the air flowing back out of your nose …
Just noticing the sensations of the breath …
The feeling of air coming into your body …
And then leaving, carrying any tension, worry, or stress with it as it no longer belongs with you …
Trust the breath …
Allow the breath to relax you deeper and deeper … You are becoming softer…
At this very moment …
You are right where you are supposed to be …
Just here …
Being with the breath …
With your body, mind, and soul …
Now … As you follow the rise and fall of your breath, I want you to imagine walking towards a waterfall in an enchanted forest …
You walk gracefully toward the sound of the water, taking the time to see and feel your surroundings truly… You can feel a deep connection with all life forms in the forest …
As you walk, floating above the forest floor, you sense the quality of the air changing, an electrifying feeling as if the air were charged with energy …
When you walk around a huge tree, the light suddenly becomes brighter …
You have emerged from the forest and are now facing a waterfall …
A curtain of white water is now revealed cascading down a series of rocky outcrops into a blue river below …
The mist from the waterfall settles on your skin, cooling your body, relaxing every muscle, invigorating all of your senses …
You sit down gracefully on a large rock facing the waterfall and gaze at the water’s edge …
The waterfall’s energy sends small waves toward shore, and you watch the waves come forward, then recede, in an endless symmetric, rhythmic, and calming …
Just like the breath …
Inhale slowly, and feel the waterfall’s energy transferred into your body …
There is such power and brilliance in the tranquility, a place of stillness even in the roar of the water … You are feeling completely relaxed.
Breathe deeply here; you have all the time you need … As you continue walking forward, let the waterfall directly onto your head, neck, shoulders, chest, and back, and all the tension in your body disappears …
You sense how each drop of water is different, having traveled a different path to reach you, yet the drops of water come together as one flowing stream to form the waterfall, gently massaging your neck and shoulders …
You pause to enjoy one last, slow in-breath, savoring the energized feeling that causes your body to glow with happiness …
Your mind is at peace; your body is relaxed, your vision crystal clear …
The birds sing in the trees, and little animals scurry about playfully, celebrating the joy of life …
Temporarily transporting yourself to these times and places help you get your power back over the situation causing your anxiety or stress …
As your mind and your body fall deeper and deeper into relaxation …
If you can … Bring to mind the best moment you have had in your life …
It can be absolutely anything …
And suppose you cannot bring anything to mind. In that case, that’s okay …
Just think of a moment that would portray this special moment …
This magnificent desire … Allow whatever flows into your mind to be inviting …
Without any judgment…
Without any pressure …
Just observe …
Allow this moment to come to you …
As you take soft, gentle breaths …
And now, once you have fully invited this moment into the view of your third eye …
Embrace it …
Embrace it fully with all your five senses …
Absorb all the emotions that may arise to the surface now …
Permit them to overflow …
To fill every single inch of your physical body …
You are glowing in joy …
You are bathing in these depths of happiness and joy …
As you recall the best moment in your life …
Right here, right now …
Take it all in …
Your body is calm …
At peace … Quiet … Yet so energized and alive, full of gratitude and appreciation for having this best moment in life stay with you for a bit longer …
As this practice ends, slowly allow your attention to expand and notice your entire body …
Perhaps wiggle your toes, move your head from side to side …
Become aware of your surroundings …
Beginning to softly move your body and re-engage with the activities of your day …
And when you are ready, gently open your eyes, and come back fully alert and awake …
We Congratulate you for spending some time with your body, mind, and soul in this way.
The military dictatorship in Brazil (Portuguese: ditadura militar) was established on 1 April 1964, after a coup d’état by the Brazilian Armed Forces, with support from the United States government against President João Goulart. The Brazilian dictatorship lasted for 21 years, until 15 March 1985. The military coup was fomented by José de Magalhães Pinto, Adhemar de Barros, and Carlos Lacerda (who had already participated in the conspiracy to depose Getúlio Vargas in 1945), then governors of the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Guanabara, respectively.
The coup was planned and executed by the most forefront commanders of the Brazilian Army and received the support of almost all high-ranking members of the military, along with conservative elements in society, like the Catholic Church and anti-communist civil movements among the Brazilian middle and upper classes. Internationally, it was supported by the State Department of the United States through its embassy in Brasilia.
Despite initial pledges to the contrary, the military regime enacted in 1967 a new, restrictive Constitution, and stifled freedom of speech and political opposition. The regime adopted nationalism, economic development, and anti-communism as its guidelines.
The dictatorship reached the height of its popularity in the 1970s with the so-called “Brazilian Miracle”, even as the regime censored all media, and tortured and exiled dissidents. João Figueiredo became President in March 1979; in the same year he passed the Amnesty Law for political crimes committed for and against the regime.
While combating the “hardliners” inside the government and supporting a re-democratization policy, Figueiredo could not control the crumbling economy, chronic inflation and concurrent fall of other military dictatorships in South America. Amid massive popular demonstrations in the streets of the main cities of the country, the first free elections in 20 years were held for the national legislature in 1982.
In 1985, another election was held, this time to elect (indirectly) a new president, being contested between civilian candidates for the first time since the 1960s, being won by the opposition. In 1988, a new Constitution was passed, and Brazil officially returned to democracy. Since then, the military has remained under the control of civilian politicians, with no official role in domestic politics.
Brazil’s military government provided a model for other military regimes and dictatorships throughout Latin America, being systematized by the so-called “Doctrine of National Security”, which “justified” the military’s actions as operating in the interest of national security in a time of crisis, creating an intellectual basis upon which other military regimes relied. In 2014, nearly 30 years after the regime collapsed, the Brazilian military recognized for the first time the excesses committed by its agents during the years of the dictatorship, including the torture and murder of political dissidents. In May 2018, the United States government released a memorandum, written by Henry Kissinger, dating back to April 1974 (when he was serving as Secretary of State), confirming that the leadership of the Brazilian military regime was fully aware of the killing of dissidents.
It is estimated that 434 people were either confirmed killed or went missing (not to be seen again) and 20,000 people were tortured during the military dictatorship in Brazil. While some human rights activists and others assert that the true figure could be much higher and should include thousands of indigenous people who died because of the regime’s negligence, the armed forces have always disputed this.
Brazil’s political crisis stemmed from the way in which the political tensions had been controlled in the 1930s and 1940s during the Vargas Era. Vargas’ dictatorship and the presidencies of his democratic successors marked different stages of Brazilian populism (1930–1964), an era of economic nationalism, state-guided modernization, and import substitution trade policies. Vargas’ policies were intended to foster an autonomous capitalist development in Brazil, by linking industrialization to nationalism, a formula based on a strategy of reconciling the conflicting interests of the middle class, foreign capital, the working class, and the landed oligarchy.
Essentially, this was the epic of the rise and fall of Brazilian populism from 1930 to 1964: Brazil witnessed over the course of this time period the change from export-orientation of the First Brazilian Republic (1889–1930) to the import substitution of the populist era (1930–1964) and then to a moderate structuralism of 1964–80. Each of these structural changes forced a realignment in society and caused a period of political crisis. Period of right-wing military dictatorship marked the transition between populist era and the current period of democratization.
The Brazilian Armed Forces acquired great political clout after the Paraguayan War. The politicization of the Armed Forces was evidenced by the Proclamation of the Republic, which overthrew the Empire, or within Tenentismo (Lieutenants’ movement) and the Revolution of 1930.
Tensions escalated again in the 1950s, as important military circles (the “hard-liner Militars”, old positivists whose origins could be traced back to the AIB and the Estado Novo) joined the elite, medium classes and right-wing activists in attempts to stop Presidents Juscelino Kubitschek and João Goulart from taking office, due to their supposed support for Communist ideology. While Kubitschek proved to be friendly to capitalist institutions, Goulart promised far-reaching reforms, expropriated business interests and promoted economical-political neutrality with the US.
After Goulart suddenly assumed power in 1961, society became deeply polarized, with the elites fearing that Brazil would become another Cuba and join the Communist Bloc, while many thought that the reforms would boost greatly the growth of Brazil and end its economical subservience with the US, or even that Goulart could be used to increase the popularity of the Communist agenda. Influential politicians, such as Carlos Lacerda and even Kubitschek, media moguls (Roberto Marinho, Octávio Frias, Júlio de Mesquita Filho), the Church, landowners, businessmen, and the middle class called for a coup d’état by the Armed Forces to remove the government. The old “hard-liner” army officers, seeing a chance to impose their positivist economic program, convinced the loyalists that Goulart was a communist menace.
Goulart and the fall of the Fourth Republic
João Goulart, a lawyer, was the left-leaning President ousted by the Armed Forces. He went to Uruguay as a political refugee, where his family owned estâncias.
After the Presidency of Juscelino Kubitschek, the right-wing opposition elected Jânio Quadros, who based his electoral campaign on criticizing Kubitschek and government corruption. Quadros’ campaign symbol was a broom, with which the president would “sweep away the corruption. “In his brief tenure as president, Quadros made moves to resume relations with some communist countries, made some controversial laws and law proposals, but without legislative support, he couldn’t follow his agenda.
In the last days of August 1961, Quadros tried to break the impasse by resigning from the presidency, apparently with the intention of being reinstated by popular demand. João Goulart was Vice President. He was a member of the Brazilian Labour Party and has been active in politics since the Vargas Era. As Quadros resigned, Goulart was outside the country visiting China. At that time Brazil’s President and Vice President were elected from different party tickets. Some military top brass tried to prevent Goulart from assuming the Presidency, accusing him of being communist, but the legalist campaign in support of Goulart was already strong. The crisis was solved by the “parliamentarian solution” – an arrangement that decreased the powers of the President by creating a new post of Prime Minister which was filled by Tancredo Neves and instituting a Parliamentary republic.
Brazil returned to Presidential government in 1963 after a referendum, and, as Goulart’s powers grew, it became evident that he would seek to implement “base reforms” (bottom-up reforms) such as land reform and nationalization of enterprises in various economic sectors (which would remove the nation from its antiquated latifundial economy). The reforms were considered communist. Goulart sought to implement the reforms regardless of assent from established institutions such as Congress. Goulart had low parliamentarian support, due to the fact that his centrist attempts to win support from both sides of the spectrum gradually came to alienate both. Over time, Goulart was forced to shift well to the left of his mentor Getúlio Vargas and was forced to mobilize the working class and even the peasantry amid falling urban bourgeois support. The core of Brazilian populism was economic nationalism, and that was no longer appealing to the middle classes.
On 1 April 1964, after a night of conspiracy, rebel troops made their way to Rio de Janeiro, considered a legalist bastion. São Paulo’s and Rio de Janeiro’s generals were convinced to join the coup. To prevent a civil war, and in knowledge that the USA would openly support the army, the President fled first to Rio Grande do Sul, and then went to exile in Uruguay, where his family-owned large estates.
United States involvement
The US Ambassador Lincoln Gordon later admitted that the embassy had given money to anti-Goulart candidates in the 1962 municipal elections, and had encouraged the plotters; many extra United States military and intelligence personnel were operating in four United States Navy oil tankers and the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal, in an operation code-named Operation Brother Sam. These ships had positioned off the coast of Rio de Janeiro in case Brazilian troops required military assistance during the 1964 coup. A document from Gordon in 1963 to US president John F. Kennedy also describes the ways João Goulart should be put down, and his fears of a communist intervention supported by the Soviets or by Cuba.
Washington immediately recognized the new government in 1964, and hailed the coup d’état as one of the “democratic forces” that had allegedly staved off the hand of international communism. American mass media outlets like Henry Luce’s Time magazine also gave positive remarks about the dissolution of political parties and salary controls at the beginning of Castello Branco mandate.
Brazil actively participated in the CIA-backed state terror campaign against left-wing dissidents known as Operation Condor.
The alleged communist threat
The argument used to justify the establishment of a military dictatorship in the country was the imminence of a “communist threat” in 1964. The historian Rodrigo Patto Sá Motta disputes the assertion that communism was of sufficient strength in Brazil to threaten the democratic system in 1964. In an interview, Motta said:
If the political regime established in 1964 was popular and had the majority support of the population, why the hell did it need authoritarian mechanisms to stay in power?”. And he adds: “Let us consider for a moment, just to construct hypothetical reasoning, that there was a serious communist threat and the military intervention aimed at defending democracy against totalitarianism (I reiterate that I consider such arguments unfounded). If so, what justification, then, for having installed a dictatorship and ending up in power for two decades? Why did they not hand over power to civilians after the “threat” had been defeated?— Rodrigo Patto Sá Motta, 1964: “O Brasil não estava à beira do comunismo”
Instead, Motta asserts that the assertion of a “communist threat” was fabricated to unify the Brasilian armed forces and increase their support among the general population.
…the big press and other institutions made a strong discursive dam in favor of the fall of Goulart, in which they mobilized to exhaustion the theme of red danger (communists) to increase the climate of panic. What is certain is that on leaving the HQs the Armed Forces unbalanced the situation and promoted the overthrow of Goulart, so their role was essential in the coup.
The Intercept reported that the asserted threat of Jango’s “guerrillas,” the weapons in possession of the Peasant Leagues (considered the MST of the time) and the communist infiltrations into the armed forces were nothing more than fantasy, and that the coup of 64 occurred without resistance, since “there was no resistance.” Moreover, the communist armed struggles only appeared after the implementation of the dictatorship, and not before it, and in fact never put Brazilian democracy at risk.
Divisions within the officer corps
The armed forces’ officer corps was divided between those who believed that they should confine themselves to their barracks, and the hard-liners who regarded politicians as willing to turn Brazil to communism. The victory of the hard-liners dragged Brazil into what political scientist Juan J. Linz called “an authoritarian situation.” However, because the hard-liners could not ignore the counterweight opinions of their colleagues or the resistance of society, they were unable to institutionalize their agenda politically.
In addition, they did not attempt to eliminate liberal constitutionalism because they feared disapproval of international opinion and damage to their alignment with the United States. The United States as bastion of anticommunism during the Cold War, provided the ideology that the authoritarians used to justify their hold on power. Washington also preached liberal democracy, which forced the authoritarians to assume the contradictory position of defending democracy, while destroying it. Their concern for appearances caused them to abstain from personal dictatorship by requiring each successive general president to hand over power to his replacement.
Presidents during the military regime
Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco
Marshal Artur da Costa e Silva
General Emílio Garrastazu Médici
General Ernesto Geisel
General João Figueiredo
Establishing the regime, Castelo Branco
The Army could not find a civilian politician acceptable to all of the factions that supported the ouster of João Goulart. On 9 April 1964 coup leaders published the First Institutional Act, which greatly limited the freedoms of the 1946 constitution. The president was granted authority to remove elected officials from office, dismiss civil servants, and revoke for 10 years the political rights of those found guilty of subversion or misuse of public funds. On 11 April 1964 the Congress elected the Army Chief of Staff, Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco as President for the remainder of Goulart’s term.
Castelo Branco had intentions of overseeing a radical reform of the political-economic system and then returning power to elected officials. He refused to remain in power beyond the remainder of Goulart’s term or to institutionalize the military in power. However, competing demands radicalized the situation. Military “hard-liner” wanted a complete purge of left-wing and populist influences while civilian politicians obstructed Castelo Branco’s reforms.
The latter accused him of hard-liner actions to achieve his objectives, and the former accused him of leniency. On 27 October 1965, after victory of opposition candidates in two provincial elections, he signed the Second Institutional act which purged Congress, removed objectionable state governors and expanded President’s arbitrary powers at the expense of the legislative and judiciary branches. This gave him the latitude to repress the populist left but also provided the subsequent governments of Artur da Costa e Silva (1967–69) and Emílio Garrastazu Médici (1969–74) with a “legal” basis for their hard-liner authoritarian rule.
But this is no military dictatorship. If it were, Carlos Lacerda would never be allowed to say the things he says. Everything in Brazil is free — but controlled.
– Minister of Transportation and colonel Mario Andreazza to journalist Carl Rowan, 1967
Castelo Branco, through extra-constitutional decrees dubbed “Institutional Acts” (Portuguese: Ato Institucional or “AI”), gave the executive the unchecked ability to change the constitution and remove anyone from office (“AI-1”) as well as to have the presidency elected by Congress.
A two-party system was created – the ruling government-backed National Renewal Alliance (ARENA) and the mild not-leftist opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) party (“AI-2”). In the new Constitution of 1967, the name of the country was changed from United States of Brazil to Federative Republic of Brazil.
Hardening of the regime, Costa e Silva
A column of M41 Walker Bulldog tanks along the streets of Rio de Janeiro in April 1968.
Castelo Branco was succeeded to the Presidency by General Artur da Costa e Silva who was representative of hardline elements of the regime. On 13 December 1968 he signed the Fifth Institutional Act that gave President dictatorial powers, dissolved Congress and state legislatures, suspended the constitution, and imposed censorship. On 31 August 1969 Costa e Silva suffered a stroke. Instead of his Vice-president all state power was assumed by military junta, which then chose General Emílio Garrastazu Médici as the new President.
Years of Lead, Médici
Brazil: love it or leave it, a slogan of the military regime.
A hardliner, Médici sponsored the greatest human rights abuses of the time period. During his government, persecution and torture of dissidents, harassment against journalists and press censorship became ubiquitous. The succession of kidnappings of foreign ambassadors in Brazil embarrassed the military government. The anti-government manifestations and the action of guerrilla movements generated an increase in repressive measures.
Urban guerrillas from Ação Libertadora Nacional and Revolutionary Movement 8th October were suppressed, and military operations undertaken to finish the Araguaia Guerrilla War.
The “ideological frontiers” of Brazilian foreign policy were reinforced. By the end of 1970, the official minimum wage went down to US$40/month, and the more than one-third of Brazilian workforce which had their wages tied to it lost about 50% of its purchasing power in relation to the 1960 levels of the Juscelino Kubitschek administration. First page of the Institutional Act Number Five
Nevertheless, Médici was popular, as his term was met with the largest economic growth of any Brazilian President, the Brazilian Miracle unfolded, and the country won the 1970 Football World Cup. In 1971 Médici presented the First National Development Plan aimed at increasing the rate of economic growth especially in remote Northeast and Amazonia. The results of his economic policy consolidated the option for the national-development model. Because of these results, the country’s foreign economic connections were transformed, allowing its international presence to be broadened.
In November 1970 federal, state, and municipal elections were held. Most of the seats were won by ARENA candidates. In 1973 electoral college was created and in January 1974 General Ernesto Geisel was elected to be the next President.
The fall of João Goulart worried many citizens. Many students, Marxists, and workers formed groups that opposed military rule. A minority of these adopted direct armed struggle, while most supported political solutions to the mass suspension of human rights. In the first few months after the coup, thousands of people were detained, while thousands of others were removed from their civil service or university positions.
In 1968 there was a brief relaxation of the nation’s repressive politics. Experimental artists and musicians formed the Tropicalia movement during this time. However, some of the major popular musicians Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso, for instance were arrested, imprisoned, and exiled. Chico Buarque left the country, in self-proclaimed exile. Student stroll against the military dictatorship, 1966.
The first signs of resistance to this repression were seen with the appearance of widespread student protests. In response, the government issued the Fifth Institutional Act in December 1968, which suspended habeas corpus, closed Congress, ended democratic government, and instituted other repressive features.
In 1969 the Revolutionary Movement 8th October kidnapped Charles Burke Elbrick, the U.S. ambassador to Brazil. The resistance fighters demanded the release of imprisoned dissidents who were being cruelly tortured in exchange for Ambassador Elbrick. The government responded by adopting more brutal measures of counterinsurgency, leading to the assassination of Carlos Marighela, a guerrilla leader, two months after Elbrick’s kidnapping.
This marked the beginning of the decline of armed opposition. In 1970, Nobuo Okuchi, Japanese consul general in Sāo Paulo, was kidnapped, while Curtis C. Cutter, U.S. consul in Porto Alegre, was wounded in the shoulder but escaped kidnapping. Also in 1970, Ehrenfried von Holleben, West German Ambassador, was kidnapped in Rio and one of his bodyguards was killed.
After the military coup, the new government put forward a series of measures to strengthen its rule and weaken the opposition. The complex structure of the state’s repression reached several areas of Brazilian society, and involved the implementation of measures of censorship, persecutions, and violations of human rights.
The systematic repression during this period in the Brazilian history was dependent on and alternated between the so-called “moderates” (“moderados”) and “hard-liners” (“linha dura”) in power. The most aggressive set of repressive measures took place during the period between 1968 and 1978, called the Years of Lead (Anos de Chumbo). The repressive characteristic of the regime, however, was present in the Brazilian society throughout the military rule.
The mainstream media, initially in pair with the military intervention at the coup’s eve, later became contrary to the government and thus under heavy censorship rules. The management of all sectors of national communication was overseen by the Special Counsel of Public Relations (Assessoria Especial de Relações Públicas) created in the beginning of 1968 while censorship was institutionalized through the Higher Counsel of Censorship (Conselho Superior de Censura) later on that same year.
The Higher Counsel of Censorship was overseen by the Ministry of Justice, which was in charge of analyzing and revising decisions put forward by the director of the Federal Cops department. The ministry also was responsible for establishing guidelines and norms to implement censorship at local levels. Institutionalized censorship affected all areas of communication in Brazilian society: – newspaper, television, music, theater, and all industries related to mass communication activities, including marketing companies.
Despite the regime’s efforts to censor any and all pieces of media that could hurt the government, the population found ways to get around it as much as possible. Even though artists and journalists had to have permission from the counsel to publish any piece of communication, they sometimes were able to surpass censorship barriers through unconventional ways. Musicians would rely on word play to publish songs with veiled criticisms towards the government while famous newspapers would fill in empty spaces left blank due to censored articles with random cake recipes, a way to indicate to the population the government’s involvement with their publication.
Human rights violations
See also: Torture_in_Brazil § During_the_Military_Dictatorship_(1964-1985)Monument to the victims of torture in Recife
As early as 1964, the military government was already using the various forms of torture it devised systematically to not only gain information it used to crush opposition groups, but to intimidate and silence any further potential opponents. This radically increased after 1968.
While other dictatorships killed more people, Brazil saw the widespread use of torture, as it also had during the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas; Vargas’s enforcer Filinto Müller has been named the “patron of torturers” in Brazil. Advisors from the United States and United Kingdom trained Brazilian forces in interrogation and torture. To extinguish its left-wing opponents, the dictatorship used arbitrary arrests, imprisonment without trials, kidnapping, and most of all, torture, which included rape and castration. The book Torture in Brazil provides accounts of only a fraction of the atrocities committed by the government.
The military government murdered hundreds of others, although this was done mostly in secret and the cause of death often falsely reported as accidental. The government occasionally dismembered and hid the bodies.
French General Paul Aussaresses, a veteran of the Algerian War, came to Brazil in 1973. General Aussaresses used “counter-revolutionary warfare” methods during the Battle of Algiers, including the systemic use of torture, executions and death flights. He later trained U.S. officers and taught military courses for Brazil’s military intelligence. He later acknowledged maintaining close links with the military.
So far nobody has been punished for these human rights violations, because of the 1979 Amnesty Law written by the members of the government who stayed in place during the transition to democracy. The law grants amnesty and impunity to any government official or citizen accused of political crimes during the dictatorship. Because of a certain “cultural amnesia” in Brazil, the victims have never garnered much sympathy, respect, or acknowledgement of their suffering.
Work is underway to alter the Amnesty Law, which has been condemned by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The National Truth Commission was created in 2011 attempting to help the nation face its past and honor those who fought for democracy, and to compensate the family members of those killed or disappeared. Its work was concluded in 2014. It reported that under military regime at least 191 people were killed and 243 “disappeared”.
The total number of deaths probably measures in the hundreds, not reaching but could be nearing one thousand, while more than 50,000 people were detained and 10,000 forced to go into exile.
According to the Comissão de Direitos Humanos e Assistência Jurídica da Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil, the “Brazilian death toll from government torture, assassination and ‘disappearances’ for 1964–81 was […] 333, which included 67 killed in the Araguaia guerrilla front in 1972–74”. According to the Brazilian Army 97 military and civilians were killed by terrorist and guerrilla actions made by leftist groups during the same period.
In a 2014 report by Brazil’s National Truth Commission which documented the human rights abuses of the military government, it was noted that the United States “had spent years teaching the torture techniques to the Brazilian military during that period.”
Geisel administration, distensão, and the 1973 oil shock
It was in this atmosphere that retired General Ernesto Geisel (1974–79) was elected to Presidency with Médici’s approval. Geisel was a well-connected Army General and former president of Petrobras.
There had been intense behind-the-scenes maneuvering by the hard-liners against him and by the more moderate supporters of Castelo Branco for him. Fortunately for Geisel, his older brother, Orlando Geisel was the Minister of Army, and his close ally, General João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo, was chief of Médici’s military staff. Once in power, Geisel adopted a more moderate stance with regards to political opposition than his predecessor Médici.
Although not immediately understood by civilians, Ernesto Geisel’s accession signaled a move toward a less oppressive rule. He replaced several regional commanders with trusted officers and labeled his political programs abertura (opening) and distensão (decompression), meaning a gradual relaxation of authoritarian rule. It would be, in his words, “the maximum of development possible with the minimum of indispensable security.”
Together with his Chief of Staff, Minister Golbery do Couto e Silva Geisel devised a plan of gradual, slow democratization that would eventually succeed despite all the threats and opposition from hard-liners.
However, the torture of the regime’s left-wing and Communist opponents by DOI-CODI was still ongoing as demonstrated by the murder of Vladimir Herzog.
Geisel allowed opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) to run an almost free election campaign before November 1974 elections and MDB won more votes than ever.
When opposition MDB party won more seats in 1976 Congress elections, Geisel in April 1977 used powers granted to him by AI-5, dismissed Congress and introduced a new package of laws (April Package), that made gubernatorial elections indirect and created an electoral college for electing the next President, thus safeguarding ARENA positions.
In 1977 and 1978 the Presidential succession issue caused further political confrontation with the hard-liners. In October 1977 he suddenly dismissed the far-right Minister of Army, General Sylvio Couto Coelho da Frota who had tried to become candidate for the next President.
In May 1978 Geisel had to deal with the first labor strikes since 1964. 500 000 workers, led by the future President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, demanded and won 11% wage increase.
By the end of his Presidency Geisel had allowed exiled citizens to return, restored habeas corpus, repealed the extraordinary powers, in December 1978 ended the Fifth Institutional Act, and imposed General João Figueiredo (1979–85) as his successor in March 1979.
A Dodge 1800 was the first prototype engineered with a neat ethanol-only engine. Exhibit at the Memorial Aeroespacial Brasileiro, CTA, São José dos Campos.The BrazilianFiat 147 was the first modern automobile launched to the market capable of running on neat hydrousethanol fuel (E100).
President Geisel sought to maintain high economic growth rates of the Brazilian Miracle which were tied to maintaining the prestige of the regime, even while seeking to deal with the effects of the 1973 oil crisis. Geisel removed long-time Minister of Finance Antônio Delfim Netto. He maintained massive state investments in infrastructure—highways, telecommunications, hydroelectric dams, mineral extraction, factories, and atomic energy. All this required more international borrowing and increased state’s debt.
Fending off nationalist objections, he opened Brazil to oil prospecting by foreign firms for the first time since the early 1950s. He also tried to reduce Brazil’s reliance on oil, by signing a US$10 billion agreement with West Germany to build eight nuclear reactors in Brazil. During this time ethanol production program was promoted as an alternative to gasoline and the first ethanol fueled cars were produced.
Brazil suffered drastic reductions in its terms of trade as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. In the early 1970s, the performance of the export sector was undermined by an overvalued currency. With the trade balance under pressure, the oil shock led to a sharply higher import bill. Thus, the Geisel government borrowed billions of dollars to see Brazil through the oil crisis. This strategy was effective in promoting growth, but it also raised Brazil’s import requirements markedly, increasing the already large current-account deficit.
The current account was financed by running up the foreign debt. The expectation was that the combined effects of import substitution industrialization and export expansion eventually would bring about growing trade surpluses, allowing the service and repayment of the foreign debt. U.S. President Jimmy Carter addresses the Brazilian Congress, 30 March 1978
Brazil shifted its foreign policy to meet its economic needs. “Responsible pragmatism” replaced strict alignment with the United States and a worldview based on ideological frontiers and blocs of nations. Because Brazil was 80% dependent on imported oil, Geisel shifted the country from uncritical support of Israel to a more neutral stance on Middle Eastern affairs. His government also recognized the People’s Republic of China and the new socialist governments of Angola and Mozambique, both former Portuguese colonies. The government moved closer to Latin America, Europe, and Japan.
Brazil’s intention to build nuclear reactors with West Germany’s help created tensions with the US which did not want to see a nuclear Brazil. After election of Carter a greater emphasis was put on the human rights. The new Harkin Amendment limited American military assistance to countries with human rights violations. Brazilian right-wingers and military viewed this as incursion on Brazilian sovereignty and Geisel renounced any future military aid from United States in April 1977.
Transition to democracy, Figueiredo
Pro-democracy Diretas Já demonstration in 1984.
President João Figueiredo steered the country back to democracy and promoted the transfer of power to civilian rule, facing opposition from hardliners in the military. Figueiredo was an Army General and former head of the secret service, National Intelligence Service of Brazil.
As president, he continued the gradual “abertura” (democratization) process that was begun in 1974. An amnesty law, signed by Figueiredo on 28 August 1979, amnestied those convicted of “political or related” crimes between 1961 and 1978. In the early 1980s, the military regime could no longer effectively maintain the two-party system established in 1966. The Figueiredo administration dissolved the government-controlled National Renewal Alliance Party (ARENA) and allowed new parties to be formed.
The President was often incapacitated by illness and took two prolonged leaves for health treatment in 1981 and 1983, but the civilian vice president Antônio Aureliano Chaves de Mendonça did not enjoy major political power.
In 1981 the Congress enacted a law on restoration of direct elections of state governors. The general election of 1982 brought a narrow victory to ARENA’s successor, pro-government Democratic Social Party (43.22% of the vote), while the opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement Party received 42.96% of votes. The governorship of three major states, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, was won by the opposition.
However, the political developments were overshadowed by increasing economic problems. As inflation and unemployment soared, the foreign debt reached massive proportions making Brazil the world’s biggest debtor owing about US$90 billion to international lenders. The austerity program imposed by the government brought no signs of recovery for the Brazilian economy.
In 1984, Diretas Já demonstrators took over the country and epitomized the newly regained freedoms of assembly and expression, but the movement’s primary objective was not attained, and the 1985 presidential election was held indirectly, via selected electoral college. The opposition vigorously struggled for passing a constitutional amendment that would allow direct popular Presidential elections in November 1984, but the proposal failed to win passage in the Congress. Opposition’s candidate Tancredo Neves succeeded Figueiredo when Congress held an election for the new President.
Main article: Foreign relations of BrazilPresidents Emílio G. Médici (left) and Richard Nixon, December 1971.Figueiredo and U.S. President Ronald Reagan riding horses in Brasília, 1 December 1982.
During this period Brazil’s international agenda incorporated new perceptions. With nationalist military — who were State-control devotees — in power, there was increased energy for questioning the disparities of the international system. Interest in expanding state presence in the economy was accompanied by policies intended to transform Brazil’s profile abroad. The relationship with the United States was still valued, but policy alignment was no longer total. Connections between Brazilian international activity and its economic interests led foreign policy, conducted by foreign minister José de Magalhães Pinto (1966–67), to be labeled “Prosperity Diplomacy.”
This new emphasis of Brazil’s international policy was followed by an appraisal of relations maintained with the United States in the previous years. It was observed that the attempted strengthening of ties had yielded limited benefits. A revision of the Brazilian ideological stand within the world system was added to this perception. This state of affairs was further enhanced by the momentary relaxation of the bipolar confrontation during détente.
In this context, it became possible to think of substituting the concept of limited sovereignty for full sovereignty. Development was made a priority for Brazilian diplomacy. These conceptual transformations were supported by the younger segments of Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations), identified with the tenets of the independent foreign policy that had distinguished the early 1960s.
Based on the priorities of its foreign policy, Brazil adopted new positions in various international organizations. Its performance at the II Conference of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in 1968, in defense of non-discriminatory and preferential treatment for underdeveloped countries’ manufactured goods, was noteworthy. The same level of concern distinguished the Brazilian stand at the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) meeting in Viña del Mar (1969). On this occasion, Brazil voiced its support of a Latin American union project.
In the security sphere, disarmament was defended and the joint control system of the two superpowers condemned. Brazil was particularly critical of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, with a view to guarantee the right to develop its own nuclear technology. This prerogative had already been defended previously, when the Brazilian government decided not to accept the validity of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TNP) in Latin America and the Caribbean. Brazil’s position on the TNP became emblematic of the negative posture that it would, from then onwards, sustain regarding the power politics of the United States and the Soviet Union.
Its initial detailing was influenced by the presence of João Augusto de Araújo Castro as ambassador to the UN and president of the Security Council in the years 1968–69. Brazil tried to strengthen its position with nuclear cooperation negotiated settlements with countries such as Israel (1966), France (1967), India (1968) and the United States (1972).
The changes in Brazilian diplomacy were to be also reflected in other matters on the international agenda, such as the moderate stance taken with regard to the “Six-Day War” between Arabs and Israelis. In the multilateral sphere, the country championed the cause of the reform of the United Nations Organization charter.
The expansion of Brazil’s international agenda coincided with the administrative reform of the Ministry of External Relations. Its move to Brasília in 1971 was followed by internal modernization. New departments were created, responding to the diversification of the international agenda and the increasing importance of economic diplomacy. Examples include the creation of a trade promotion system (1973) and the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation (1971) to develop studies and research foreign policy.
Foreign policy during the Gibson Barboza mandate (1969–74) united three basic positions. The first one, ideological, defended the existence of military governments in Latin America. To achieve that, the Organization of American States fought terrorism in the region. The second one criticized the distension process between the two superpowers, condemning the effects of American and Soviet power politics. The third requested support for development, considering that Brazil, with all its economic potential, deserved greater responsibility within the international system.
New demands and intentions appeared, related to the idea that the nation was strengthening its bargaining power in the world system. At international forums, its main demand became “collective economic security”. The endeavor to lead Third World countries made Brazil value multilateral diplomacy. Efforts in this direction can be observed at the UN Conference on Environment (1972), the GATT meeting in Tokyo (1973) and the Law of the Sea Conference (1974).
This new Brazilian stance served as a base for the revival of its relationship with the United States. Differentiation from other Latin American countries was sought, to mean special treatment from the United States. Nevertheless, not only was this expectation not fulfilled but military assistance and the MEC-USAID educational cooperation agreement were interrupted.
Washington held itself aloof at the time of President Médici’s visit to the United States in 1971. In response, especially in the military and diplomatic spheres, nationalist ideas were kindled and raised questions about the alignment policy with the United States.
The presence of J.A. de Araújo Castro as ambassador to Washington contributed to the re-definition of relations with the American government. The strategic move was to try to expand the negotiation agenda by paying special attention to the diversification of trade relations, the beginning of nuclear cooperation, and the inclusion of new international policy themes.
In 1971 the military dictatorship helped rig Uruguayan elections, which Frente Amplio, a left-wing political party, lost. The government participated in Operation Condor, which involved various Latin American security services (including Pinochet’s DINA and the Argentine SIDE) in the assassination of political opponents.
During this period, Brazil began to devote more attention to less-developed countries. Technical cooperation programs were initiated in Latin America and in Africa, accompanied in some cases by State company investment projects – in particular in the fields of energy and communication. With this pretext, an inter-ministerial system was created by Itamaraty and the Ministry of Planning, whose function it was to select and coordinate international cooperation projects. To foster these innovations, in 1972 foreign minister Gibson Barboza visited Senegal, Togo, Ghana, Dahomey, Gabon, Zaïre, Nigeria, Cameroon and Côte d’Ivoire.
However, the prospect of economic interests and the establishment of cooperation programs with these countries was not followed by a revision of the Brazilian position on the colonial issue. Traditional loyalty was still towards Portugal. Attempts were made to consolidate the creation of a Portuguese-Brazilian community.
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